Armed Forces and Society in Europe by Anthony Forster (auth.)

By Anthony Forster (auth.)

In the post-Cold battle period, ecu militaries are engaged in an ongoing version that is not easy family among military and the societies that they serve. This publication bargains an leading edge conceptual framework to seriously review modern civil-military relatives around the continent of Europe. It analyzes 8 key concerns in defense force and society kin, to discover the size and depth of those changes.

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Morris Janowitz observes by contrast that changes in technology, society and missions have led to an inevitably more political role for the professional soldier, than that suggested by Huntington (Janowitz, 1960, 1964b). For Janowitz alongside the general legitimacy of the civilian government, an appropriate social profile, the status of the armed forces and their sense of civic obligation (elements of subjective control), the best guarantee of keeping the military ‘out of politics’ is its own divided nature, which ensures civilian supremacy through inter-service rivalry and the intra-military competition for resources and influence (Janowitz, 1960: 420).

Key elements of civil society comprise the media, non-governmental organisations including think-tanks, professional scholars, activists and pressure groups. All can contribute to the climate of opinion towards and directly and indirectly affect the formation of policy on the armed forces through three means. First, elements within civil society can offer an alternative, non-governmental, source of information on security issues and inform both the general public and the policy-making community.

In the latter respect, they offer a particularly important arena for promoting, if not ensuring, accountability and transparency in relation to decisions to deploy the armed forces and at times of national emergency. Across Europe, where legislatures have routinely been deficient is in undertaking detailed scrutiny of defence policy and the armed forces. To a large extent not only is this a product of the fact that most legislatures have weak parliamentary committees, but it is also strongly influenced by the unwillingness of individual members of the legislature to exercise their powers – both formal and informal.

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