Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical by Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Celia A. Harvey,

By Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Celia A. Harvey, Claude Gascon, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Anne-Marie N. Izac

Agroforestry might be the main biodiversity-friendly land use alternative. This quantity examines the opportunity of agroforestry in tropical areas for making land economically efficient with no degrading the surroundings.

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Human demand for resources in and around hotspots may be significantly higher than in other areas. 3 percent per year (Cincotta et al. 2000). A second major global conservation strategy uses a representative approach. A descriptive example of this conservation strategy, used by World Wildlife Fund, is the ecoregion approach. This approach seeks to focus efforts on conserving representative areas in major ecosystem and habitat types (Olson and Dinerstein 1998). Some areas, which have maintained isolation for long time periods, such as oceanic islands, mountain ranges, karst, and caves, often are reservoirs of incredible amounts of biodiversity.

Such losses occur for several reasons. First, small populations are highly vulnerable to random demographic events (Shafer 1981). Consider, for example, the fate of a population of 20 short-lived animals that, simply by chance, had two consecutive breeding seasons in which few females were born into the population. The reproductive capacity of the population would be drastically reduced, and it could easily disappear. In large populations such chance events are of little importance, but simple random fluctuations in births and deaths can have dire impacts on small populations.

Rice. In preparation. On defying nature’s end. , P. D. Tyson, R. J. Swap, M. Edwards, P. Kallberg, and J. A. Lindesay. 1996. Horizontal and vertical transport of air over southern Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:23721–23736. , W. F. Laurance, and T. E. Lovejoy. 2003. Forest fragmentation and biodiversity in central Amazonia. In G. A. Bradshaw and P. A. ), How landscapes change. Ecological Studies 162. Berlin: Springer. , T. E. Lovejoy, R. O. Bierregaard, J. R. Malcolm, P. C. Stouffer, H.

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