By Mizuho Yabushita
The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, considerable, and renewable biomass comparable to cellulose and chitin to chemical substances. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to invaluable compounds has attracted around the world curiosity for construction sustainable societies. First, the present state of affairs of this sizzling study region has been summarized good within the basic advent of the thesis, which is helping readers to familiarize yourself with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding construction of glucose from cellulose through the use of an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that's one of many optimum yields ever stated. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that susceptible acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that's markedly varied from pronounced catalytic structures that require powerful acids. additionally, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been built. the combo of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis permits the creation of N-acetylated monomers in stable yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic platforms confirmed during this thesis are certain within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic experiences according to characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts in the course of the reactions. the implications can be beneficial for readers to layout and improve new catalysts and response systems.
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Additional info for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
A new pretreatment method, named mix-milling, is developed to drastically accelerate the hydrolysis of cellulose by the carbons, resulting in one of the highest yields of glucose in any methods. The effects of mix-milling on cellulose hydrolysis are investigated by characterization, model reactions, and kinetics. 3 Chapter 3: Mechanistic Study of Cellulose Hydrolysis by Carbon Catalysts The catalysis of carbon materials for hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds is scrutinized in this chapter. The author proposes active sites on carbons and their catalysis from physicochemical characterization of carbons, model reactions, kinetics, thermodynamics, and computations.
The effects of mix-milling on cellulose hydrolysis are investigated by characterization, model reactions, and kinetics. 3 Chapter 3: Mechanistic Study of Cellulose Hydrolysis by Carbon Catalysts The catalysis of carbon materials for hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds is scrutinized in this chapter. The author proposes active sites on carbons and their catalysis from physicochemical characterization of carbons, model reactions, kinetics, thermodynamics, and computations. 4 Chapter 4: Catalytic Depolymerization of Chitin to N-Acetylated Monomers The catalytic two-step depolymerization of chitin to monomers with retention of N-acetyl groups has been developed.
Fukuoka et al. found that 2 wt% Ru/CMK-3 hydrolyzed cellulose to glucose in 24 % yield in water (entry 25) [150, 151], and this catalyst was reusable up to ﬁve times without loss of activity or Ru leaching, conﬁrmed by inductivity coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The yield of glucose was raised up to 31 % by increasing the Ru loading to 10 wt%. Interestingly, this catalyst promotes the reaction without addition of any acids or any post-synthetic modiﬁcations of the CMK-3 support, indicating that the impregnated Ru nanoparticles possibly work as a catalyst for the cleavage of glycosidic bonds.